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Reasons for divorce vary, from sexual incompatibility or lack of independence for one or both spouses to a personality clash.
The Vatican City is an ecclesiastical state, which has no procedure for divorce.
Also in Italy, new laws came into force in 20 with significant changes in Italian law in matter of divorce: apart from shortening of the period of obligatory separation, are allowed other forms of getting a divorce – as an alternative to court proceedings, i.e.
the negotiations with the participation of an advocate or agreement made before the registrar of Public Registry Office.
In such a divorce the spouses are not able to agree on issues for instance child custody and division of marital assets.
In such situations, the litigation process takes longer to conclude.
In most jurisdictions, a divorce must be certified (or ordered by a Judge) by a court of law to come into effect.
The terms of the divorce are usually determined by the courts, though they may take into account prenuptial agreements or post-nuptial agreements, or simply ratify terms that the spouses may have agreed to privately (this is not true in the United States, where agreements related to the marriage typically have to be rendered in writing to be enforceable).
This is the case, for example, in many US states (see Grounds for divorce (United States)).
Note that "separation" does not necessarily mean separate residences – in some jurisdictions, living in the same household but leading a separate life (e.g., eating, sleeping, socializing, etc.
separately) is sufficient to constitute de facto separation; this is explicitly stated, e.g., in the family laws of Latvia.
Before the late 1960s, nearly all countries that permitted divorce required proof by one party that the other party had committed an act incompatible to the marriage.
This was termed "grounds" for divorce (popularly called "fault") and was the only way to terminate a marriage.
The liberalization of divorce laws is not without opposition, particularly in the United States.